DIBt is structured in five departments. The work of Departments I to III revolves around different areas of technical expertise, namely stability; environmental and health protection; fire safety, thermal and sound insulation as well as building services. Main responsibilities include granting national technical approvals and construction technique permits, developing and supporting the development of technical specifications and other tasks related to the respective areas of expertise.

The Presidential Department, or Department P, pools DIBt's expertise in the area of building and construction product law. The Department also acts as a horizontal coordination hub with the building authorities and other partners.

As an internal service provider, the Administration and Services Department sees to areas such as budget and tendering, HR, IT, post room, facility management as well as public and international relations.

DIBt is headed by President Gerhard Breitschaft, seconded by Vice-President Karsten Kathage. The Institute reports to the Supervisory Board composed of representatives from the 16 federal states and the Federation.

In addition, DIBt is advised by external experts from public administration, the industry, research and academia. These experts come together and exchange information in general policy and subject-specific expert committees.